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  • The term lysosomal storage diseases describes a group of disorders in which certain metabolic enzymes necessary for normal body functions are not produced by the body. Lysosomal storage diseases are rare and are inherited via recessive genes, meaning both parents are carriers.

  • Bacterial overgrowth is a condition of the small intestine resulting in increased numbers of bowel bacteria. The major concern with bacterial overgrowth is the development of a condition called "small intestinal bacterial overgrowth" (SIBO).

  • Maropitant is a medication (technically a neurokinin receptor antagonist) that makes stimulation of the vomit center extremely difficult. In dogs 16 weeks and older, it is used to prevent vomiting due to motion sickness and to prevent acute vomiting which may be associated with many illnesses.

  • Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM) is an immune system disorder in which the dog’s immune system identifies the dog’s own muscle tissue as foreign and attacks it.

  • Mastitis is a term used to describe inflammation of a mammary gland. In most cases, mastitis is caused by a bacterial infection. Trauma to the mammary gland, or prolonged periods of milk accumulation without milk removal, can lead to inflammation within the mammary gland.

  • Megaesophagus is not a single disease. Instead it is considered a combination disorder in which the esophagus (the tube that carries food and liquid between the mouth and stomach) dilates and loses motility (its ability to move food into the stomach). When esophageal motility is decreased or absent, food and liquid accumulate in the esophagus.

  • Meningoencephalitis is a term referring to inflammation of the brain and the surrounding fluid and tissues. Meningoencephalitis of unknown origin is a term used to describe those cases of meningoencephalitis in which MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicate inflammatory, non-infectious CNS disease but diagnosis through histopathological analysis is not available.

  • The heart has four chambers. The upper chambers are called atria (one chamber is called an atrium) and the lower chambers are called ventricles. The heart is also divided into right and left sides. Each chamber of the heart has a one-way valve to keep blood from flowing backward.

  • Mothballs are solid pesticides that slowly release a gas vapor to kill and repel moths, their larvae, and other insects from stored clothing and fabric. Mothballs are sometimes also used to repel snakes, mice, and other animals, although this use is not recommended and can be harmful to pets, children, and the environment.

  • Motion sickness in dogs is a common problem. Motion or car sickness is more common in younger dogs than adults. The reason may be due to the fact that the parts of the inner ear involved in balance aren’t fully developed. Puppies will often “outgrow” motion sickness by the time they’re about 1 year old.

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