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  • The phrase ‘multidrug resistance mutation 1 (MDR1)’ refers to a specific mutation that can occur at a gene known as the MDR1 gene, also known as the ABCB1 gene. Many herding breeds (most commonly Collies and Australian Shepherds) have a mutation at the MDR1 gene that makes them more sensitive to the negative effects of certain medications.

  • Muscular dystrophy is an inherited disease that affects the muscles. Signs of muscular dystrophy are typically seen early in life (at one to three months of age) and they progress as the dog ages. There are multiple forms of muscular dystrophy noted in animals and humans. The most common form of muscular dystrophy in dogs is seen in Golden Retrievers.

  • Myasthenia gravis is a disease in which there is a malfunction in the transmission of signals between the nerves and muscles.

  • Narcolepsy is a disorder of the nervous system, affecting primarily young dogs and cats. A narcoleptic episode involves sudden collapse and loss of movement. The pet literally falls asleep, often while physically active, then wakes up abruptly and proceeds as if nothing happened.

  • Epistaxis is defined as acute hemorrhage from the nostril, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx. It is commonly referred to as a "nosebleed." Epistaxis in dogs can be extremely unsettling for the pert owner. Most acute or sudden nosebleeds are caused by simple trauma or by upper respiratory tract infections. Other causes of epistaxis in dogs can be more serious and require immediate treatment.

  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive, degenerative disease of the joints. It is one of the most common chronic diseases that affect dogs. By some estimates, 20% of dogs of all ages are affected by OA.

  • Ovarian remnant syndrome is a condition that occurs when ovarian tissue remains inside the body after a female dog is spayed. This tissue can produce estrogen, triggering signs of heat in the dog.

  • In recent years, veterinarians have made great progress in understanding how dogs feel pain and the best ways to manage that pain. Many dogs will instinctively hide their pain as a survival mechanism, which, in the past, lead to incorrect assumptions about the ability of dogs to feel pain.

  • Veterinary palliative medicine is a philosophy of care in which a decision has been made to decline or withdraw the pursuit of curative therapy for a life-limiting illness. Some diseases that we treat in dogs are managed over the long term without any hope for a cure.

  • The pancreas is a vital organ that produces enzymes to assist in food digestion and hormones such as insulin, which regulates blood sugar or glucose metabolism. When the pancreas becomes inflamed, the condition is called pancreatitis. Pancreatitis commonly occurs in the dog.

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